A new study shows that white women get the job offers they are offered, while black women are more likely to get a lower offer than white men.
Researchers at the University of Iowa say they think white women may have to consider the diversity of their peers to make an accurate assessment of the job market.
The study, published Monday in the Journal of Applied Psychology, found that black women were more than twice as likely to be offered a job in the field of human resources as white women, but white men received a higher offer than black women.
The researchers say that their study is the first to look at job-related diversity across racial and ethnic groups.
The findings show that despite the high rate of women of color working in STEM fields, they are not equally represented in the job opportunities offered to them, the researchers wrote.
“These findings show a subtle but important difference in the recruitment process of applicants of color and white women,” lead author Jennifer E. Schoeneberger, a doctoral candidate at Iowa State University, told The Huffington Press in an email.
“For example, white women are far more likely than white male applicants to be given an offer than their black male counterparts.”
Schoeneberg and her co-authors surveyed 828 prospective job applicants from Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and Wisconsin.
Participants completed job application forms that included job titles and job descriptions, along with detailed information about job experience, salary and job location.
They also were asked about the gender and race of applicants, as well as about other job-relevant information.
The researchers found that African-American women and Asian-American men were more likely in the sample to be matched with a job offer, but whites were far more often matched with an offer.
“The racial and gender disparity in the match rate of applicants is quite striking,” Schoenerberger said.
“Women of color, while still making up nearly a third of all job seekers in this sample, were nearly twice as often matched for an offer.”
Schoenberger and her colleagues compared job-matching rates across genders and racial and ethnicity groups in their sample.
Black women received significantly lower offers than white females.
For instance, white men were only matched for a total of 5 percent of job offers from African-Americans, but they received almost two-thirds of all offers from Asian-Americans.
White women are much more likely compared to African- and Asian American men to be match for a job than white white men, the study found.
For example, African- American women are matched for only 13 percent of the offers, but their share of offers was over five times larger than the share of job offer matches between white men and African- or Asian American women.
Schoenberg also said that the lack of matching rate between white women and African American men was significant, even when they were matched for identical positions.
The white men who received lower offers were almost two and a half times more likely as white men to not be matched for jobs than those who received higher offers.
Schoenerberg said she plans to conduct more research in the coming years to examine the employment and hiring decisions made by employers and applicants.
“Our findings suggest that it is important for employers to consider diversity of race, ethnicity, and gender in job application processes,” she said.
The study also found that job-seekers who were matched with white women were much more successful than those that were matched to African American women and that this difference was particularly pronounced for men who were first matched for work in a STEM field.
Schuenerberger and colleagues found that matching rates varied by occupation.
For white women applicants, they found that they were twice as successful as white males when matching for positions in finance, construction and other fields.
White men were almost four times more successful in matching with women of colour.
For the other fields, matching rates for white men ranged from about 12 percent to 21 percent, while matching rates were slightly higher for African- Americans.
For white men applying to jobs in engineering, Schoenberger said, they were four times as likely as men of color to not get matched for those positions.
For African-americans applying to those jobs, Schohenberger said they were about three times as successful.
Schochberger said the findings are especially concerning for women of all ethnicities, particularly those in the STEM fields.
“If we are going to get women of any color to get hired in STEM-related fields, we need to make sure that they are matched to jobs,” she told HuffPost.
“We need to match them to jobs where they are likely to succeed, and that means working to match people who are more qualified and experienced to those fields, which is where we can start to make the biggest difference.”
Schochberts study did not take into account job-specific diversity.
The authors did, however, include a measure of job-based diversity to examine job-seeking practices in STEM careers.
The measure of diversity used by the